“长谷川改变了我的想法，”曾获普利策奖的《原子弹的制造》(the Making of the Atomic Bomb)作者理查德•罗兹(Richard Rhodes)说。“日本决定投降不是因为那两次轰炸。””[…]“The bomb – horrific as it was – was not as special as Americans have always imagined. …more than 60 of Japan’s cities had been substantially destroyed by the time of the Hiroshima attack, according to a 2007 International Security article by Wilson, who is a senior fellow at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. In the three weeks before Hiroshima, Wilson writes, 25 cities were heavily bombed. To us, then, Hiroshima was unique, and the move to atomic weaponry was a great leap, military and moral. But Hasegawa argues the change was incremental. “Once we had accepted strategic bombing as an acceptable weapon of war, the atomic bomb was a very small step,” he says. To Japan’s leaders, Hiroshima was yet another population center leveled, albeit in a novel way. If they didn’t surrender after Tokyo, they weren’t going to after Hiroshima.
的problem with the classic Toll House myth is that it doesn’t mention that Wakefield was an experienced and trained cook—one not likely to simply run out of things, let accidents happen in her kitchen, or randomly try something out just to see if it would end up with a tasty result. As author Carolyn Wyman posits in her Great American Chocolate Chip Cookie Book, Wakefield most likely knew exactly what she was doing…
我发现的最早的可能解释巧克力曲奇的食谱是从1912年开始弗里茨·路德维希·吉南德(Fritz Ludwig Gienandt)所著的《二十世纪进步面包师、糖果师、装饰师和冰淇淋制造商的书:同类中最新式、最实用的书》(The Twentieth Century Book for The Progressive Baker, Confectioner，装饰品和冰淇淋制造商:The Most时代性和实用性最强的书籍》)一书中写道。
每一位总统都赋予国家安全委员会不同程度的重要性，赋予国家安全委员会工作人员不同程度的自主权和对其他机构(如国务院和国防部)的影响力。例如，德怀特·d·艾森豪威尔(Dwight D. Eisenhower)总统利用国家安全委员会的会议来做出关键的外交政策决定，而约翰·f·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)和林登·b·约翰逊(Lyndon B. Johnson)更喜欢通过信任的伙伴进行非正式的工作。在理查德·m·尼克松总统的领导下，当时由亨利·a·基辛格领导的国家安全委员会从一个协调机构转变为一个积极参与与外国领导人谈判和执行总统决定的组织。然而，国家安全委员会会议本身并不频繁，只是确认了尼克松和基辛格已经同意的决定。
屠宰场案例（1873年），是其成为第一个解释第十三和第十四修正案最高法院的判例。经过屠宰场的做法继续污染新奥尔良饮用水，路易斯安那州议会通过，允许城市创造一个公司基本上垄断了屠宰场行业的行为。感兴趣的屠宰肉类屠宰所有曾在新奥尔良市畜牧着陆和屠宰场公司这样做。的Butchers’ Benevolent Association, an organization of New Orleans butchers, assembled in multiple cases to sue on the grounds that the government, by creating the company, violated their privileges or immunities and deprived them of their liberty and property without due process as protected by the fourteenth amendment. Additionally, they claimed that Crescent city violated the 13th amendment, referring to their actions as “involuntary servitude.” They appealed after losing in all trial cases. The supreme court affirmed and held that neither their 13th or 14th amendment rights had been violated. The narrow reading of Privileges or Immunities in The Slaughterhouse Cases rendered the clause nearly insignificant.
因此，一个城市试图通过组织各种规定减少污染，在很多我们今天怎么有饮用水，旨在航线浪费了下水道系统的系统来调节局部有害的做法。也许是看它像健康和COVID19的现代术语安全菜市场（屠宰场）的规定：美国最近曾试图要求中国关闭他们的农贸市场下跌同时要求美国的人必须保持开放，这意味着在美国COVID19蔓延，这导致China to ban American imports of meat… it’s complicated.
罗伯特·默里(Robert Murray)离开圭亚那的乔治敦(Georgetown)加入了英国皇家空军(RAF)，他回忆道:“在我来到英国之前，我从未听说过种族主义。”...there is now a desire to celebrate the achievements of those such as Flight Sergeant Jimmy Hyde, the much-decorated Trinidadian piolt, there has been little recognition of the isolation they felt in the RAF. […] There is an official RAF photograph of Hyde, from 132 Squadron, with his Spitfire and holding “Dingo”, the squadron commander’s pet dog. Hyde, while forcing a smile, looks uneasy: it is unclear which one is the mascot.