“长谷川改变了我的想法，”曾获普利策奖的《原子弹的制造》(the Making of the Atomic Bomb)作者理查德•罗兹(Richard Rhodes)说。“日本决定投降不是因为那两次轰炸。””[...]“The bomb – horrific as it was – was not as special as Americans have always imagined. …more than 60 of Japan’s cities had been substantially destroyed by the time of the Hiroshima attack, according to a 2007 International Security article by Wilson, who is a senior fellow at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. In the three weeks before Hiroshima, Wilson writes, 25 cities were heavily bombed. To us, then, Hiroshima was unique, and the move to atomic weaponry was a great leap, military and moral. But Hasegawa argues the change was incremental. “Once we had accepted strategic bombing as an acceptable weapon of war, the atomic bomb was a very small step,” he says. To Japan’s leaders, Hiroshima was yet another population center leveled, albeit in a novel way. If they didn’t surrender after Tokyo, they weren’t going to after Hiroshima.
该traditional tale holds that Toll House Inn owner Ruth Wakefield invented the cookie when she ran out of baker’s chocolate, a necessary ingredient for her popular Butter Drop Do cookies (which she often paired with ice cream—these cookies were never meant to be the main event), and tried to substitute some chopped up semi-sweet chocolate instead. The chocolate was originally in the form of a Nestle bar that was a gift from Andrew Nestle himself—talk about an unlikely origin story! The semi-sweet chunks didn’t melt like baker’s chocolate, however, and though they kept their general shape (you know, chunky), they softened up for maximum tastiness. (There’s a whole other story that imagines that Wakefield ran out of nuts for a recipe, replacing them with the chocolate chunks.)
该problem with the classic Toll House myth is that it doesn’t mention that Wakefield was an experienced and trained cook—one not likely to simply run out of things, let accidents happen in her kitchen, or randomly try something out just to see if it would end up with a tasty result. As author Carolyn Wyman posits in her Great American Chocolate Chip Cookie Book, Wakefield most likely knew exactly what she was doing…
最早的食谱我发现或许可以解释巧克力曲奇饼是从1912年开始弗里茨·路德维希·吉南德(Fritz Ludwig Gienandt)所著的《二十世纪进步面包师、糖果师、装饰师和冰淇淋制造商的书:同类中最新式、最实用的书》(The Twentieth Century Book for The Progressive Baker, Confectioner，装饰品和冰淇淋制造商:The Most时代性和实用性最强的书籍》)一书中写道。
每一位总统都赋予国家安全委员会不同程度的重要性，赋予国家安全委员会工作人员不同程度的自主权和对其他机构(如国务院和国防部)的影响力。例如，德怀特·d·艾森豪威尔(Dwight D. Eisenhower)总统利用国家安全委员会的会议来做出关键的外交政策决定，而约翰·f·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)和林登·b·约翰逊(Lyndon B. Johnson)更喜欢通过信任的伙伴进行非正式的工作。在理查德·m·尼克松总统的领导下，当时由亨利·a·基辛格领导的国家安全委员会从一个协调机构转变为一个积极参与与外国领导人谈判和执行总统决定的组织。然而，国家安全委员会会议本身并不频繁，只是确认了尼克松和基辛格已经同意的决定。
“先生。总统，如果我们理解正确的话，您认为我们南部联盟犯了叛国罪;我们是你们政府的叛徒;我们已经丧失了权利，是刽子手的正当臣民。这不是你所说的意思吗?”With brutal frankness Lincoln replied: “Yes, you have stated the proposition better than I did. That is about the size of it.”
该Major says: ‘The strange thing was that throughout the morning she kept referring to the Indians as n*****s.’ He adds: ‘ “No, no, no, no,” I said, “n*****s are West Indians, these people are w**s”. ‘ “No, no, no,” she said, “all cricketers are n*****s”.’
罗伯特·默里(Robert Murray)离开圭亚那的乔治敦(Georgetown)加入了英国皇家空军(RAF)，他回忆道:“在我来到英国之前，我从未听说过种族主义。”…there is now a desire to celebrate the achievements of those such as Flight Sergeant Jimmy Hyde, the much-decorated Trinidadian piolt, there has been little recognition of the isolation they felt in the RAF. […] There is an official RAF photograph of Hyde, from 132 Squadron, with his Spitfire and holding “Dingo”, the squadron commander’s pet dog. Hyde, while forcing a smile, looks uneasy: it is unclear which one is the mascot.